High Efficiency Deep Grinding on CD
by Taghi Tawakoli
ISBN 0 85298 820 6
1993,141 pages
Availabe on CD through AES
duplicated with permission
$38 plus s&h

Disk includes a selection of recent trade articles,research reports and other resources.

High Efficiency Deep Grinding

HEDG grew out creep feed grinding and if current news reports are any indicator it will be the technology of the future for grinding of new materials, particularly with applications of CBN for aerospace metals. In 2001, a collaborative program brought together researchers at Cranfield and Liverpool John Moores universities, UK, with 7 industrial partners in a program that validated the technology and developed methods to optimize this process with phenonmena material removal rates that halved traditional product cycle times. Recently Holroyd, parent company for Edgetek and its HEDG machine tools, reported a $1.2 Billion sale to a Chinese aerospace manufacturer for systems to manufacture compressor blades for jet engines. In the US Max-Tek LLC actively promotes its line of Superabrasive Machines using the technology.
Compared to more conventional creep feed grinding, HEDG has much higher specific removal rates, typically 50 2000mm3/mm/s compared to 0.1 10mm3/mm/s. In addition, the lower finished surface temperature adds improvement to the quality of the finish. As this book and research shows, contrary to conventional wisdom, thermal damage drops dramatically at very high wheels speeds and grinding efficiency raises equally dramatically.
The scientific basis for HEDG technology can be found in this book by Taghi Tawakoli.

As the creep feed grinding technique has developed, and its areas of application widened, conventional machining methods, such as form milling and turning, can now be replaced to some extent.
Following the introduction of the process into industrial manufacturing, it took a long time for creep feed grinding to win general acceptance. Larger contact lengths, higher total energy conversion, and higher grinding forces led to the widely held view that creep feed grinding might cause thermal damage to the surface of the workpiece and the surface zone.
Scientific research succeeded in throwing light on the technological mechanisms, thus explaining the advantages of creep feed grinding compared with conventional reciprocating grinding. In particular it was the important finding that, in creep feed grinding, during the removal process the newly produced surface is exposed to a substantially lower thermal load than in reciprocating grinding, which led to the widespread adoption of the creep feed grinding method.
Research into creep feed grinding at higher stock removal rates could only be carried out with the introduction of new machines and grinding tools and the higher peripheral speeds possible with such tools. This research paved the way to the current use of high performance machines with modern CNC control systems for carrying out semi automated machining operations.
The further development of creep feed grinding at greater stock removal rates gave rise to the term 'high efficiency deep grinding'. The machines used for high efficiency deep grinding have a high spindle output and are fitted with a stepless speed control. At wheel speeds in excess of 100 m/s special grinding wheels must be used. Very few aluminiurn oxide wheels can be used at peripheral speeds as high as 125 m/s. The development of new abrasives, such as CBN (cubic boron nitride), has resulted in significant advances in the field of modern highefficiency grinding. Very high wheel speeds (v, > 100 m/s) are possible when CBN abrasives are used in specially made grinding wheels (for example, with a metal bond).

Introduction 1
Chapter 2 The state of the art
2.1 Creep feed grinding as an introduction to high efficiency surface grinding
2.2 Technological requirements for combining creep feed grinding with high speed grinding
2.3 Discussion of various high efficiency surface grinding processes
2.3.1 Creep feed grinding with continuous dressing (CD grinding)
2.3.2 High speed surface grinding with CBN wheels
2.3.3 High efficiency belt grinding
3 Task and objective
4 Technological principles and requirements for high efficiency surface grinding
4.1 Definition of the process and machine settings
4.2 Grinding machine requirements
4.3 Tool requirements
4.4 Coolant supply
4.4.1 Suitable supply systems
4.4.2 Wheel cleaning
4.5 Conditioning the grinding wheel in high efficiency deep grinding
4.5.1 Dressing and sharpening grinding wheels
4.5.2 Swing step profiling technique
4.5.3 Touch dressing CBN wheels (shaving)
4.5.4 Sharpening ultrahard grinding wheels
4.6 Technological requirements for achieving high removal rates
4.7 Analytical determination of the wheel specific maximum removal rate
4.7.1 Mean chip space as a limiting factor
4.7.2 The strength of the wheel body and bond as a limiting factor
4.8 Thermomechanical process conditions
4.8.1 Theoretical principles and calculation methods
5 Description of the test equipment for empirical research
5.1 High efficiency surface grinding machine
5.2 Measuring equipment
5.3 Apparatus and method for measuring temperature
6 Test results
6.1 Spindle output as a function of grinding parameters
6.2 Grinding forces as a function of grinding parameters
6.3 Workpiece roughness as a function of grinding parameters
6.4 Wear and grinding ratio as a function of grinding parameters 1
6.5 Temperature as a function of grinding parameters
6.6 Residual stresses as a function of grinding parameters
6.7 Influence of grinding direction on results (down or up grinding)
6.8 Influence of grit size on the grinding result
7 Summary