Development in the Dressing of Super Abrasive Grinding Wheels
Harder workpiece materials and increased efficiency requirements for grinding processes make the use of super abrasive grinding wheels indispensable. This paper presents newly developed processes for the dressing of super abrasive grinding wheels. The different bond systems of grinding wheels require distinct dressing process. In this paper, dressing processes for metal and vitrified bonded grinding wheels are investigated. It introduces the method of electro contact discharge dressing for the conditioning of metal-bonded, fine-grained multilayer grinding wheels. A description of the essential correlation between dressing parameters and the material removal rate of the bond material is presented. The considered parameters are the dressing voltage, the limitation of the dressing current and the feed as well as the infeed of the electrode. For the grinding of functional microgroove structures, multiroof profiles with microscopic tip geometries are dressed onto the grinding wheel. For this, a profile roller in combination with a special shifting strategy is applied on finegrained vitrified bonded grinding wheels.
High Speed Grinding of Advanced Ceramics: A Review
In this paper, the characteristics of high speed grinding of advanced ceramics, including alumina, alumina-titania, zirconia, silicon nitride and silicon carbide, were reviewed. The associated material removal mechanisms were discussed. Pragmatic technologies for the high speed grinding of advanced ceramics were also presented.
Experimental Investigations on Material Removal Rate and Surface Roughness in Lapping of Substrate Wafers: A Literature Review
Lapping is an important material-removal process for manufacturing of substrate wafers. Objectives of lapping include removing subsurface damage in sliced wafers, thinning wafers to target thickness, and achieving a high degree of parallelism and flatness of wafer surfaces. This paper reviews the literature on lapping of substrate wafers. It presents reported experimental results on effects of input parameters (lapping pressure, plate rotation speed, abrasive grain size, slurry concentration, and slurry flow rate) on material removal rate and surface roughness.
A Focused Review on Enhancing the Abrasive Waterjet Cutting Performance by Using Controlled Nozzle Oscillation
Increasing the performance of the abrasive waterjet (AWJ) cutting technology for engineering materials is the ultimate aim of research in this field. This paper presents a review on the studies using a controlled nozzle oscillation technique to increase the cutting performance of the AWJ cutting technology and the associated mechanisms primarily based on the work in the author’s laboratory. Primary attention is paid to the discussions of the depth of cut, the effect and selection of process parameters and the advantages by using this technique in both single- and multi-pass cutting modes.
A Review of Electrolytic In-Process Dressing (ELID) Grinding
ELID Grinding, since its introduction over two decades ago, has helped in material removal of hard and difficult-to-cut engineering materials. A gist of the important research milestones on the process has been organized in this report. The hybrid process of ELID Grinding has a simultaneous electrolytic reaction and grinding action. Electrolysis takes place between the conductive anodic wheel and highly conductive cathode in presence of a special electrolyte. The resulting anodic oxide wears off easily to allow efficient grinding. The different parameters involved in electrolysis complicate the mechanism of grinding and makes it significantly different from conventional grinding. Different variants of the process have also been reported, though the basic philosophy of operation is the same as basic ELID. Several authors have also suggested mathematical explanations, among other fundamental studies, that provide further insight. The basic components of the process, machine tool, power supply, grinding wheel, electrode and electrolytes, have also undergone several modifications and developments to deliver better results and suit specific purposes. The process has been successfully applied in stock removal operations for hard and brittle ceramic materials with low grinding forces compared to conventional grinding. Fine finishing of almost all kinds of hard and brittle materials, ranging from hardened steels, BK7 glass, mono-crystalline silicon, silicon carbide, aluminum nitride, silicon nitride etc, has been successfully carried out, to provide high quality surfaces with low sub-surface damage. Finally, discussions on the different stages of evolution of the process have been put forward as a conclusion to the report.
On the Coherent Length of Fluid Nozzles in Grinding
The delivery of grinding fluid to the contact zone is generally achieved via a nozzle. The nozzle geometry influences the fluid velocity and flow pattern on exit from the nozzle orifice. It is important to the efficiency of the process and to the performance of the operation that the fluid is delivered in a manner that ensures the desired jet velocity has adequate coverage of the contact zone. Often, assumptions about adequate coverage are based on visual inspections of the jet coherence. This paper provides new insight into the internal nozzle flows and the coherent length of a wide range of nozzle designs. The work presents a new analytical model to predict coherent length which is shown to correlate well with measured data from experiment. Recommendations are given to guide a user to optimal design of nozzles to ensure adequate fluid supply to the contact zone. buy paper
Surface Characteristics of Efficient-Ground Alumina and Zirconia Ceramics for Dental Applications
Progress of new dental materials such as biocompatible metal, ceramics is being accelerated because of aging society and sophistication of medical treatment. In addition, the demand for dental implant treatment is increasing. Currently, dental implant crowns (superstructures) are formed by cutting semi-sintered ceramics and then sintering the ceramics at a high temperature. So, there is some concern that to maintain the form accuracy of the workpiece is difficult. Meanwhile, it is usually difficult to machine sintered ceramics with high precision and high efficiency. In this paper, we tried to apply grinding with metal bonded superabrasive wheels, and investigated the grinding and surface characteristics of an alumina and zirconia ceramics for dental implant superstructure due to lack of such data. As a result of experiments, sintered dental ceramics can be ground with high precision and Fe, it has harmful effect to human body, was not detected in sintered dental ceramics.
Optimization of Cutting-Edge Truncation in Ductile-Mode Grinding of Optical Glass
The effect of cutting-edge truncation on the grinding mechanism of quartz glass as a hard and brittle material was investigated. From computer-aided grinding simulations and experiments on surface plunge grinding it was found that cutting-edge truncation decreases the ground-surface roughness and the maximum grain depth of cut; however, the maximum grain depth of cut approaches a constant value depending on the grinding wheel specifications. The alternative means of making the maximum grain depth of cut much smaller than this constant value is to increase the speed ratio. Cutting-edge truncation should be terminated at the optimum truncation depth to avoid the high grinding forces resulting from the flattening of cutting edges.
On the Polishing Techniques of Diamond and Diamond Composites
This article reviews the state-of-the-art techniques for polishing diamond and polycrystalline diamond composites. A focus is on their material removal mechanisms and features. It concludes that while each of them has its advantages and drawbacks, the technique by dynamic friction has a promising potential for polishing production.
Super Polishing Behaviour Investigation of Stainless Steel Optical Lens Moulding Inserts
Super polishing experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of polishing parameters on surface quality of stainless steel lens moulding inserts, and to optimize polishing conditions. Experimental results indicated that optical quality surface of stainless steel lens moulding inserts can be achieved through a two-step polishing process: fast polishing with a soft wood head and coarse diamond paste, and fine polishing with a nylon-covered steel ball head and fine diamond paste. A diameter of 20 mm stainless steel lens moulding insert with a surface roughness Ra of 7.6 nm has been successfully achieved using the two-step super polishing process.
Applications of Contact Length Models in Grinding Processes
The nature of the contact behaviour between a grinding wheel and a workpiece in the grinding process has a great effect on the grinding temperature and the occurrence of thermal induced damage on the ground workpiece. It is found that the measured contact length le in grinding is considerably longer than the geometric contact length lg and the contact length due to wheel-workpiece deflection lf. The orthogonal relationship among the contact lengths, i.e. lc2 = (Rrlf)2 + lg2, reveals how the grinding force and grinding depth of cut affect the overall contact length between a grinding wheel and a workpiece in grinding processes. To make the orthogonal contact length model easy to use, attempts on modification of the model are carried out in the present study, in which the input variable of the model, Fn’, is replaced by a well-established empirical formula and specific grinding power. By applying the modified model in this paper, an analysis on the contributions of the individual factors, i.e. the wheel/worpiece deformation and the grinding depth of cut, on the overall grinding contact length is conducted under a wide range of grinding applications, i.e. from precise/shallow grinding to deep/creep-feed grinding. Finally, using a case study, the criterion of using geometric contact length lg to represent the real contact length lc, in terms of convenience versus accuracy, is discussed.
Polishing Performance of Electro-Rheological Fluid of Polymerized Liquid Crystal Contained Abrasive Grit
In this study, we proposed an electro-rheological fluid-aided polisher (ERAP) using one-sided, patterned electrodes. The characteristics of ER fluid and ER fluid containing abrasive grit were investigated. The polishing performances of ER fluids with and without abrasive grit employing ERAP were verified and the following conclusions were obtained. Decreases in viscosity and in the ER effect were observed when highly polymerized liquid crystal (hereafter referred to as HPLC) was diluted with silicon oil. However, the mixing of abrasive grit increases the ER effect, but the ER effect of ER fluid containing abrasive grit decreased when mixed with abrasive grit. The viscosity decreased with increases in aliphatic saturated cyclic hydrocarbon oil (hereafter referred to as NCDM) mixed in highly polymerized compound (one kind of HPLC). The larger the positive dielectric anisotropy, the larger the ER effect in low-polymerized liquid crystal (hereafter referred to as LPLC). The smaller the grit size, the weaker the ER effect. When polished with HPLC, the polished surface was rough due to the large viscosity of an HPLC:silicon oil ratio of 4:14 mixed with #2000WA. However, the smallest surface roughness was attained at 0.5kV/mm for an HPLC:silicon oil ratio of 1:17 mixed with #2000WA. The surface quality was improved at an HPLC: silicon oil ratio of 1:17 mixed with #3000WA. When polished with LPLC, the surface roughness was improved by the increased ER effect when LPLC having a positive dielectric anisotropy was used. However, the surface roughness showed no change when LPLC with a negative dielectric anisotropy was used, due to its small ER effect.
Study on Tribo-Fabrication in Polishing by Nano Diamond Colloid
Now that nano diamonds can be produced stably at low costs, there are growing needs to explore new areas of applications. This report discusses basic polishing experiments performed on nano diamonds to investigate their frictional and wear characteristics during polishing, and the results been obtained. The authors also propose a new terminology “tribo-fabrication” to mean an area of research on tribological phenomena seen with the interface of workpiece and tool surface in ultra-precision fabrication. These new term as well as the polishing characteristics of nano diamond are discussed.
Efficient Super-Smooth Finishing Characteristics of SiC Materials through the Use of Fine-Grinding
Silicon carbide (SiC) materials have increasingly been needed in the wide range of industries, such as for structural components, automobile parts, space telescope, X-ray mirror, and next-generation semiconductors. However, SiC materials have difficulties in super-smooth finishing because of their hard and brittle characteristics. The authors have been investigating appropriate conditions on their finishing by fine-grinding with the unique grinding process called ELID (Electrolytic In-process Dressing) grinding method. The ELID grinding method has a stable grinding ability, so very detailed characteristics of their material-remove mechanisms were to be investigated. Surface analysis of each material has been discussed through the ELID, and this study proposes good finishing conditions for SiC. In this paper, the advantages of the applied fine-grinding are shown, and unique features on grinding characteristics of SiC through various grinding experimental parameters are described.
a name= "143">
Polishing of Ultra Smooth Surface with Nanoparticle Colloid Jet
A nanoparticle colloid jet machining system has been developed for polishing ultra smooth surface of brittle materials. Interaction between nanoparticles and work surface in nanoparticle colloid jet machining has been given, and the theoretical dependence of the material removal rate with various important process parameters of the nanoparticle colloid jet machining have been investigated through material removal experiments. Some material removal results of nanoparticle colloid jet machining show that it is possible to obtain removal rates of one nanometer level per minute for glass surfaces with appropriate machining process parameters. A K9 glass surface was polished for obtaining ultra smooth surface. The surface roughness value of atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations is under 1nm Rms.
An Experimental Study on High Speed Grinding of Granite with a Segmented Diamond Wheel
An experimental study was undertaken to investigate the grinding of granite at different grinding speeds over a wide range of material removal rates. A metal-bonded diamond blade was used as the grinding wheel with natural gray granite as the workpiece material. The tangential and normal force components were obtained through measuring the horizontal and vertical force components as well as the consumed power. The experiments were conducted with a constant wheel surface state to study the influence of grinding speed under different material removal rates. An additional test was also carried out to examine the grinding process while the wheel surface state progressively changed, in which case both forces and the morphologies of diamond grains were monitored at regular intervals. At a fixed material removal rate, both the tangential and normal forces reduced slightly with the grinding speed. But the specific energy increased greatly at higher grinding speeds especially at a shallower maximum grain depth of cut.
Thinning Silicon Wafer with Polycrystalline Diamond Tools
Sintered polycrystalline diamond (PCD) compacts are normally used for cutting tools, drill bits and wire dies. A novel application of PCD has been developed to use its entire surface carved to create different patterns which are triangle or square shape loaded with leveled millers that can shave brittle materials in ductile mode. Due to numerous cutting edges formed on the same level of PCD tools, which can be used to thin the wafer surface to achieve both flatness and smoothness of the industrial requirements. SEM has been used to observe the surface and subsurface of the thinned wafer surface. The critical depth of cut between ductile and brittle cutting mode is close to 2 µm in this thinning operation. The damaged layers of machined surface have been observed and studied in this paper.
Mechanisms of Al/SiC Composite Machining with Diamond Whiskers
The objective of this study is to experimentally investigate the mechanisms in machining of aluminum/silicon carbide (SiC) composite with two types of diamond whiskers. These whiskers are prepared from polycrystalline diamond compacts (PDC) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond plates which are cut into dimensions of 10×0.3×0.6 mm with an Nd:YAG (Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet) laser. In order to obtain sharp and consistent cutting edges, the diamond whiskers are polished with diamond powders of the average grain sizes of 10 µm, 2.5 µm and 1 µm, respectively. A precision grinder is used to conduct machining of the aluminum/SiC composite at a depth of cut smaller than that in the conventional milling but larger than the individual grit depth of cut in grinding. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is utilized for observing the machined workpiece surfaces, the whisker cutting edges, and a surface profilometer for inspecting surface roughness and verifying the actual depth of cut in the machined workpiece. The study discusses the mechanisms of workpiece material removal and diamond whisker wear in machining of the aluminum/SiC composite.
Effect of Slurry and Nozzle on Hole Machining of Glass by Micro Abrasive Suspension Jets
Micro drilling experiments of glass by Micro Abrasive Suspension Jets (MASJ) were carried out. The influence of the nozzle and compositions of slurry including the selection of abrasives, suspending agents and their concentrations on material removal, the depth and the diameter of the machined holes were investigated for glass drilling. Four processing stages are provided to describe the erosion profile characteristics. The suspension properties of slurry play an important role in MASJ machining. Five million molecular weight non-ionic polyacrylamide with concentration of 0.6% , white corundum abrasive and the longest length of the nozzle cylindercal zone can achieve lager material removal and better quality of hole in MASJ machining.
Experimental Investigation of Temperatures in Diamond Wire Sawing Granite
The background temperatures in the sawing of granite with a diamond wire were measured by foil thermocouple. The influences of the measuring position in the cutting zone, cutting speed, feed rate and coolant on the temperature were investigated. The results indicated that the background temperature would be stable after a short-term rise. It was shown that the background temperature increased with cutting speed, but there was no obvious relationship between the background temperature and feed rate. The maximum background temperature appeared at the front part of the cutting zone at a lower feed rate. With an increase of feed rate, the background temperature at the middle of the cutting zone was the highest. The coolant had an obvious influence on the maximum background temperature.